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The present study indi rectly compares OS and PFS between these trials, and add

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 The present study indi rectly compares OS and PFS between these trials, and add Empty The present study indi rectly compares OS and PFS between these trials, and add

Сообщение  wangqian в Ср Апр 02, 2014 12:57 pm

Importantly, the KU-0063794 溶解度 combination of RAD001 with letrozole caused tumor regression, whereas the combination with tamoxifen provided no clear benefit over the single agents, However, the growth rate over the study period was not significantly different between the RAD001 and letrozole or tamoxifen groups. Although the growth rate in the mice trea ted with the combination of RAD001 and letrozole was significantly less than that with the vehicle, no statistical difference was found between the combina tion and letrozole alone, The effects of RAD001 in combination with the endo crine agents were also investigated in a second xenograft model using BT474 AROM3 cells, The mean tumor volume fold change was 2. 07 0. 7 at day 23 for the vehicle.<br><br> However, in contrast to the previous model, neither letrozole nor tamoxifen reduced Lenalidomide 溶解度 tumor volume, and, although not statistically sig nificant, a trend was noted toward tamoxifen promoting tumor growth compared with the vehicle treated control arm, Of note, RAD001 alone induced tumor stabilization, Assessment of the combination arms revealed no sig nificant difference compared with RAD001 as a single agent, Furthermore, the combination of RAD001 and tamoxifen appeared to have less effect than did RAD001 alone, although this did not approach statistical significance No significant alterations in body weight were found between the vehicle and any of the treatment arms, LTED cells were unable to be established as xenografts, so data are not available. RAD001 resulted in concentration dependent decrease in proliferation in all cell lines tested, most markedly in the LTED.<br><br> In combination with endocrine therapy, RAD001 enhanced the antiproliferative effect and G1 accumulation compared with monotherapy. This was associated with pronounced dephosphorylation of Rb and increased phosphorylation and nuclear accumula tion of p27. RAD001 increased pAKT in all circum stances, which was associated with increased pHER3. Furthermore, RAD001 decreased オーダー LY294002 ER transactivation, suggesting that the efficacy of RAD001 may relate to interrupting cross talk between growth factor signaling and ER, leading to decreased ER phosphorylation. Over recent years, a drive has occurred toward the use of targeted agents for BC treatment. Both in vitro and in vivo models of endocrine resistant BC suggest a shift from the dependence of tumor cells on the steroid receptor pathways driving proliferation to dependence on growth factor pathways.<br><br> This allows the resistant tumor to circumvent the need for steroid hormone through downregulation of genomic ER function or by hypersensitivity to low levels of estradiol, The PI3K pathway is strongly implicated in endocrine resistance, and agents that target kinases within this network have received significant interest, A drive has been noted toward the rational combination of agents that target de novo resistance or seek to block acquired resistance. The combination of RAD001 with exemestane was recently found, in the BOLERO 2 trial, to be more effective than exemestane alone for the treatment of advanced BC after initial treatment with a nonsteroidal AI, but few data from laboratory models provide a mechanistic explanation.


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